Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation Finds That CKD is Safe Form of Training For Adults
Posted: February 20, 2020
Yong-Seok Jee, Denny Eun | Department of Physical Activity Design, Hanseo University, Seosan, Korea
Among the many sports and activities to choose from, martial arts are becoming increasingly popular for health and fitness. Due to the different nature of the various styles of martial arts, injuries are not uncommon. Though there have been studies on the injury rates of several martial art styles, there have been none regarding Choi Kwang Do (CKD), a non-competitive martial art with relaxed and fluid movements designed to promote health and fitness for people of all ages.
The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of injury for adults training in CKD to find out whether this is a safe style of martial art for adults. This study found the prevalence, causes, severity, and types of injuries from CKD practitioners around the world through an online survey targeting adults (n=122), aged 18 or older, with varying years of training experience. The annual rate of injury was 11.73 for every 100 CKD practitioners. There was no correlation between the length of training experience and injury. Training frequency and duration had no significant relationship with injury rates. A significant positive relationship between training intensity and injury existed (P=0.009).
The results of the study found that CKD can be an attractive option for adults of any age who are looking to learn a martial art or choose a physical activity with a low risk of injury, however, the training intensity should be kept at a level that is not excessively high.
Certain sports and activities that were once enjoyed during a person’s younger years often have to be relegated to the past as they age. When the physical demands of such sports or activities exceed an individual’s capacity, there is a risk of injury. This is in addition to the constant risk of injuries due to the actual activities themselves, such as competitive sports and activities (Bledsoe et al., 2006; Gartland et al., 2005; Yang et al., 2012).
Generally, older adults require a longer period of time to fully recover from injuries and may have a greater risk of injury than younger adults (Stevenson et al., 2000). Therefore, as a person becomes older, greater importance is placed on safety, which may lead to avoiding certain types of physical activity. As a result, the kinds of activities that older adults can enjoy into their later years become more limited.
When also accounting for activities that include all three general categories of exercise which include aerobic training, resistance training, and flexibility training (Avers, 2016), the options may dwindle even further. Among the various sports and activities an individual can choose from, martial arts are increasingly becoming a more popular form of training for people of all ages (Ko and Yang, 2009). When training in martial arts, injuries can result from several reasons such as training habits and accidents, but people involved in competitions that involve full contact strikes are particularly more prone to injuries (Bledsoe et al., 2006; Covarrubias et al., 2015; Gartland et al., 2005; Zazryn et al., 2003). More specifically, there are also different rates of injuries among various styles of martial arts (McPherson and Pickett, 2010; Zetaruk et al., 2005).
Generally, martial arts can be categorized as either ‘hard’ or ‘soft.’ The ‘hard’ martial arts, such as taekwondo (TKD), are based on using blocks and punches that can inflict significant damage to the bones or body parts of the opponent. The ‘hard’ martial arts tend to use fewer strikes and punches, but with more power.
The ‘soft’ martial arts are based on redirecting the opponent’s energy/attack and using more, but less powerful, punches and kicks. Tai chi chuan (TC), is an example of a ‘soft’ martial art (Brudnak et al., 2002; Burke et al., 2007). Most martial art styles fall into one or more categories: striking-based systems, grappling and throwing systems, weapons-based systems, and health-based systems (Terry, 2006).
Choi Kwang Do (CKD) is a modern martial art that relies more on flexibility and fluidity of movement as opposed to the more rigid motions of some traditional styles. CKD techniques employ natural bilateral movement and fluid sequential motion to develop maximum force on impact while minimizing pressure on the joints. The program is based on scientific principles and aims to promote optimum health, practical self-defense, and personal development for people of all capabilities, skill levels, and ages (http://choikwangdo.com/what_is_CKD.html) (Choi, 2011).
According to Terry (2006), CKD would be categorized as a striking-based art, as well as a health-based system. Although CKD would be categorized as a ‘hard’ martial art according to Brudnak et al. (2002) and Burke et al. (2007), its motions consist of fluid, circular movements and does not include full contact sparring or competitions. Studies have shown that 40.3% of martial art practitioners who were involved in mixed martial arts competitions incurred injuries (Bledsoe et al., 2006). Zetaruk et al. (2005) conducted a comparative study on five different martial art styles with the following results: Shotokan karate (29.8%), Olympic style taekwondo (59.2%), Aikido (51.1%), kung fu (38.5%), and TC (14.3%). Among them, Aikido (27.7%) had the highest incidence of major injuries followed by taekwondo (26.5%), kung fu (17.9%), karate (16.7%), and TC (7.1%).
One of the reasons CKD was created was to reduce the risk of injuries by excluding competitive aspects, employing fluid techniques, and using the 10 components to promote health and fitness, self-defense, and personal development. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate the rate of injuries for CKD practitioners. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of injuries and to examine if this is a safe martial art for adults.
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